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From Wall Street to Impact Street: Learn How SIBs and SSE Are Changing India's Investment Landscape



Introduction


In the pursuit of sustainable development, nations worldwide grapple with the dual challenges of financing critical social and environmental projects while delivering tangible, measurable impact. India, as a dynamic emerging economy with multifaceted development needs, is no exception. To address these challenges, India has embarked on a groundbreaking journey by establishing the Social Stock Exchange (SSE). This innovative platform seeks to facilitate impact investing, mobilizing private capital towards projects that create positive social and environmental change.


In parallel, the concept of Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) has emerged as a transformative financial instrument globally, aligning the interests of investors, service providers, and governments to achieve specific, measurable social and environmental outcomes. By integrating SIBs within India's SSE, a synergistic partnership can be forged, offering a promising pathway to harness private capital for public good while advancing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs). This article delves into the intricate landscape of SIBs and SSE, exploring how they can collectively drive sustainable development in India, align with UN SDGs, and showcase real-world case studies as exemplary models of impact.


Section 1: Understanding Social Impact Bonds (SIBs)


The Essence of SIBs


Social Impact Bonds, often referred to as Pay-for-Success contracts, represent a financial instrument designed to bridge the gap between impact-driven organizations and investors seeking both financial returns and social or environmental outcomes. The core features of SIBs include:


Outcome-Based Financing: SIBs shift the focus from inputs and processes to measurable outcomes. Investors provide upfront capital to service providers, and the government or outcome payer repays investors based on the achievement of predetermined outcomes.


Risk Sharing: SIBs distribute risk among stakeholders - investors, service providers, and outcome payers. Investors bear the financial risk, while governments or outcome payers commit to repay investors if and only if predefined outcomes are achieved.


Performance Metrics: Clear and specific outcome metrics are established to evaluate the success of SIB-funded projects. These metrics are quantifiable, time-bound, and relevant to the social or environmental challenge being addressed.


Section 2: The Genesis and Objectives of India's Social Stock Exchange (SSE)


2.1: SSE - An Instrument of Transformation


India's SSE represents a pivotal step in the nation's journey toward impact investing and sustainable development. It is designed as a dedicated platform connecting impact-focused organizations with investors keen on deploying capital for both financial returns and social or environmental impact. The primary objectives of SSE encompass:


Facilitating Impact Investments: SSE serves as a marketplace where capital can be channeled toward projects and organizations that create positive social and environmental outcomes.


Enhancing Transparency: SSE promotes transparency by offering standardized impact reporting, allowing investors to make informed decisions and assess the impact of their investments.


Fostering Collaboration: SSE acts as a hub for collaboration among stakeholders, including social enterprises, impact investors, philanthropic organizations, and regulatory authorities.


Promoting Innovation: SSE encourages the development of innovative financial instruments and investment structures that prioritize impact alongside financial returns.


Measuring Impact: The exchange emphasizes the measurement and verification of social and environmental outcomes, aligning with global best practices in impact assessment.


2.2: Significance and Potential


The establishment of India's SSE holds immense significance for the country's social and environmental landscape. It signifies a concerted effort to bridge the financing gap for critical projects, strengthen the impact investing ecosystem, and mobilize private capital for public good. Key factors underscoring the potential of India's SSE include:


Impact at Scale: SSE has the potential to mobilize substantial capital for projects addressing India's most pressing social and environmental challenges, driving impact at scale.


Investor Demand: The growing interest among investors, including institutional investors, family offices, and high-net-worth individuals, in aligning their portfolios with impact objectives aligns with SSE's mission.


Innovation: SSE can serve as a catalyst for financial innovation, enabling the development of new investment instruments and financial models designed to maximize impact.


Government Engagement: Government support and regulatory clarity are vital for the success of SSE, as they can encourage participation and create an enabling environment for impact investing.


Collaboration: SSE fosters collaboration among diverse stakeholders, creating opportunities for knowledge sharing, partnership building, and collective action.


2.3 Listing Criteria for Social Stock Exchange (SSE) in India


As India seeks to catalyze the flow of investment capital towards social and environmental causes, the establishment of a dedicated Social Stock Exchange (SSE) has become a pivotal step. The SSE serves as a unique marketplace where organizations with a primary mission to create positive social and environmental impact can raise capital from impact investors. To maintain the credibility and effectiveness of SSE, stringent listing criteria are essential. This article outlines the key listing criteria that organizations must typically meet to be listed on SSE in India.


2.3.1 Organizational Eligibility


2.3.1.1: Legal Structure

One of the fundamental criteria for listing on SSE is the legal structure of the organization. Typically, SSE may require organizations to be registered under specific legal forms, such as:

  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs): Charitable organizations and NGOs working in areas like education, healthcare, poverty alleviation, or environmental conservation.

  • Social Enterprises: For-profit entities with a clear social or environmental mission and a commitment to reinvest a significant portion of profits into impact activities.

  • Cooperatives: Cooperative societies working towards social and environmental objectives.

2.3.1.2: Governance and Transparency
  • Governance Standards: Organizations must adhere to robust governance standards, which may include a transparent board structure, defined roles and responsibilities, and ethical leadership.

  • Transparency and Reporting: Demonstrated commitment to transparency through regular reporting of financial and impact-related information.

  • Ethical Practices: Commitment to ethical practices, including responsible business conduct and compliance with relevant laws and regulations.

2.3.2: Impact Focus


2.3.2.1: Mission Alignment

Organizations seeking SSE listing must have a clearly defined mission and objectives aligned with social or environmental impact. The mission should be the primary focus of the organization, and its activities should aim to fulfill this mission.


2.3.2.2: Impact Measurement

SSE typically requires organizations to have a robust impact measurement and reporting framework in place. This includes:

  • Outcome Metrics: Organizations must identify specific, measurable, and time-bound outcomes that align with their mission.

  • Impact Reporting: Regular reporting of impact data, including progress toward outcomes and any relevant metrics.

2.3.3: Financial Viability


2.3.3.1: Financial Health

Organizations must demonstrate financial stability and sustainability. SSE may have specific financial thresholds that organizations are required to meet, including positive net assets, revenue levels, and liquidity ratios.


2.3.3.2: Use of Funds

Organizations should have a clear plan for the use of funds raised through SSE. Funds should be directed primarily towards advancing the social or environmental mission, with a transparent breakdown of

allocation.


2.3.3.3: Financial Reporting

Regular and audited financial reporting is a standard requirement for SSE listing. Transparency in financial reporting helps build trust among potential investors.


2.4.4: Impact Track Record


2.4.4.1: Previous Impact

Organizations seeking SSE listing may be required to provide evidence of their past impact. This could include case studies, impact assessments, or third-party evaluations of previous projects or initiatives.


2.4.4.2: Scalability and Replicability

SSE may consider an organization's ability to scale its impact and replicate successful models in different regions or contexts. Scalability and replicability are essential for maximizing the effectiveness of impact investments.


2.4.5: Regulatory Compliance


2.4.5.1: Legal and Regulatory Compliance

Organizations must comply with all relevant laws and regulations, including those pertaining to non-profit organizations, taxation, and any sector-specific regulations.


2.4.5.2: SSE Listing Rules

Organizations must adhere to the specific listing rules and requirements set by SSE, which may include disclosure standards, reporting timelines, and compliance with SSE's governance guidelines.


2.4.6: Commitment to Impact


2.4.6.1: Impact Commitment

Organizations listed on SSE are expected to maintain their commitment to social and environmental impact throughout their tenure on the exchange. This includes regular impact reporting and adherence to their stated mission.


As India's SSE gains momentum, the integration of Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) within this framework presents a unique opportunity to leverage private capital for social and environmental impact. The convergence of SIBs and SSE aligns with the global movement to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs), offering a transformative approach to sustainable development.


Section 3: The Synergy of SIBs and SSE - Unlocking Impact


3.1: Complementary Objectives


The integration of Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) within India's Social Stock Exchange (SSE) is rooted in the shared objectives of both mechanisms. These complementary objectives include:


Driving Impact Investing: Both SSE and SIBs aim to promote impact investing by connecting investors with projects and organizations that prioritize social and environmental outcomes. SSE serves as a marketplace for impact investments, while SIBs offer a structured financing mechanism with impact-linked returns.


Accelerating Social Initiatives: SIBs and SSE are vehicles for accelerating social and environmental initiatives. SSE provides a platform for organizations to raise capital, and SIBs offer a way to fund specific projects with a focus on outcome-driven results.


Increasing Transparency: Transparency and accountability are central to both SSE and SIBs. SSE emphasizes standardized impact reporting, and SIBs require rigorous outcome measurement and verification, ensuring that stakeholders have access to reliable data.


Scaling Impact: SSE and SIBs are well-suited for scaling social and environmental impact. SSE can attract a wide range of investors, including institutional capital, while SIBs encourage private investors to fund projects that can be replicated and scaled.


3.2: Addressing India's Development Challenges


India faces multifaceted development challenges that require innovative financing solutions. By integrating SIBs into SSE, India can address several critical issues:


Education: SIBs can support initiatives aimed at improving educational outcomes, reducing dropout rates, and enhancing the quality of education, particularly in underserved regions.


Healthcare: SIBs can fund projects that increase access to healthcare services, improve maternal and child health, and combat diseases.


Environment: SIBs can drive investments in environmental conservation, renewable energy, and sustainable agriculture, contributing to India's sustainability goals.


Poverty Alleviation: Projects funded through SIBs can target poverty reduction, livelihood enhancement, and economic empowerment of marginalized communities.


The integration of SIBs within SSE aligns with India's commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and offers a promising pathway to tackle these challenges effectively.


Section 4: Benefits of SIBs in India's SSE


The incorporation of SIBs within SSE carries numerous benefits, both for impact investors and the broader ecosystem:


4.1: Financial Innovation


Diverse Investment Opportunities: SIBs broaden the range of impact investment opportunities available on SSE. Investors can choose from a portfolio of bonds aligned with various impact areas, diversifying their impact portfolios.


Risk Mitigation: SIBs can provide a degree of risk mitigation for investors. The outcomes-based repayment structure ensures that investor returns are contingent on program success, aligning financial incentives with social outcomes.


Alignment with Impact Goals: SIBs enable investors to allocate capital to projects that align with their impact objectives. This alignment enhances investor engagement and satisfaction.


4.2: Outcome-Driven Financing


Measurable Impact: SIBs facilitate clear, measurable impact metrics, allowing investors to track the progress and effectiveness of their investments. This transparency enhances confidence in the impact ecosystem.


Accountability: SIBs hold service providers accountable for achieving predefined outcomes, promoting efficiency and ensuring that capital is deployed effectively.


4.3: Risk Allocation


Balanced Risk Allocation: SIBs distribute risks effectively among stakeholders. While investors assume the risk of program failure, governments or outcome payers commit to repaying investors if the program succeeds.


Incentivizing Innovation: The risk-sharing nature of SIBs encourages service providers to innovate and experiment with new approaches to achieve impact.


4.4: Stakeholder Engagement


Collaborative Partnerships: SIBs necessitate collaboration among governments, investors, and service providers. These partnerships foster collective efforts to address complex social and environmental issues.


Inclusive Participation: SIBs promote the inclusion of diverse stakeholders, including civil society organizations, foundations, and philanthropic entities, in impact financing.


The integration of SIBs within SSE not only enhances the financial aspects of impact investing but also strengthens the ecosystem's capacity to deliver meaningful social and environmental outcomes.


Section 5: Identifying Target Impact Areas


India's diverse social and environmental challenges necessitate a strategic approach to identifying target impact areas for SIBs within SSE. While the scope is vast, focusing on specific sectors can maximize impact:


5.1: Education


Improving Literacy and Enrollment Rates: SIBs can fund initiatives that enhance literacy levels and increase school enrollment, particularly among underprivileged communities.


Skill Development: Projects focused on skill development and vocational training can equip marginalized youth with employable skills, addressing unemployment challenges.


5.2: Healthcare


Maternal and Child Health: SIBs can support interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality rates, improving child healthcare, and enhancing healthcare access for vulnerable populations.


Disease Prevention: SIB-funded projects can target disease prevention and healthcare awareness campaigns, particularly in rural areas.


5.3: Environment


Renewable Energy: SIBs can facilitate investments in renewable energy projects, contributing to India's renewable energy targets and reducing carbon emissions.


Conservation: Funding conservation efforts, such as reforestation and wildlife protection, can address environmental degradation and biodiversity loss.


5.4: Poverty Alleviation


Microfinance: SIBs can support microfinance institutions that provide financial services to low-income individuals, promoting financial inclusion and poverty reduction.


Livelihood Enhancement: Projects focused on livelihood enhancement, including agricultural development and artisanal skills, can uplift marginalized communities.


The identification of target impact areas should consider India's national development priorities, regional disparities, and the potential for scalability and replicability.


Section 6: Designing Social Impact Bonds for India


6.1: Structuring SIBs


Defining Outcomes: Clear and specific outcome metrics must be defined for each SIB. These metrics should be measurable, relevant, and achievable within a defined timeframe.


Outcome Payor Agreement: The agreement between the outcome payor (typically the government) and investors should specify the repayment terms, including the trigger points for repayments based on outcomes achieved.


Service Provider Selection: Careful selection of service providers with a track record of impact and financial viability is crucial.


Risk Allocation: The allocation of risks among stakeholders should be transparent and equitable, with investors assuming some risk and governments or outcome payers committing to repayments.


6.2: Role of Governments and Philanthropy


Outcome Payer Commitment: Governments should demonstrate a commitment to outcome-based financing by agreeing to repay investors if outcomes are achieved. This commitment provides assurance to investors.


Subsidies and Grants: Philanthropic organizations can provide subsidies or grants to de-risk SIBs and bridge any financial gaps, particularly for early-stage projects.


6.3: Investor Participation


Diverse Investor Base: Encourage a diverse base of impact investors, including institutional investors, high-net-worth individuals, and foundations, to participate in SIBs.


Investor Education: Promote investor education on the nuances of SIBs, including the potential risks and rewards associated with impact-linked returns.


6.4: Impact Measurement and Verification


Standardized Metrics: Develop standardized impact metrics and reporting frameworks that align with international best practices, ensuring consistency and comparability.


Independent Evaluation: Establish independent evaluation mechanisms to assess program progress and validate outcomes achieved.


Transparency: Ensure transparency in impact reporting, allowing stakeholders to access real-time information on program performance.


The successful design of SIBs for India should prioritize financial sustainability, scalability, and social and environmental impact. A structured approach, collaborative partnerships, and rigorous impact measurement are essential components of effective SIB design.


Section 7: Implementation Strategies


7.1: Collaboration Among Stakeholders


Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships: Foster partnerships among governments, impact investors, philanthropic organizations, and social enterprises to collectively design and implement SIBs.


Technical Assistance: Provide technical assistance and capacity-building support to service providers to ensure they can effectively deliver outcomes.


7.2: Regulatory Framework


Regulatory Clarity: Collaborate with regulatory authorities to provide clear guidelines and standards for SIBs, addressing legal and compliance aspects.


Tax Incentives: Explore the possibility of tax incentives or concessions for investors participating in SIBs to enhance their attractiveness.


7.3: SSE's Role in Facilitating SIBs


Listing SIBs on SSE: SSE can act as a platform for listing and trading SIBs, providing visibility to investors and enabling secondary market transactions.


Investor Education: SSE can offer investor education programs and resources on SIBs to enhance investor understanding and confidence.


Standardization of Impact Reporting: SSE can establish standardized impact reporting requirements for organizations issuing SIBs, ensuring consistent reporting practices.


Monitoring and Evaluation: SSE can facilitate monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to track the progress and outcomes of SIB-funded projects.


The successful integration of SIBs within SSE requires a collaborative and coordinated approach, with SSE playing a pivotal role in facilitating SIB issuance and ensuring the alignment of financial and impact objectives.


Section 8: Case Studies


8.1: International Examples of Successful SIBs


8.1.1: Rikers Island Social Impact Bond (USA)


Objective: Reduce recidivism among young adults leaving the Rikers Island jail complex in New York City.


Investors: Goldman Sachs, Bloomberg Philanthropies, and others.


Outcome: Investors received returns based on the reduction in recidivism rates, leading to innovative reentry programs.


8.1.2: Peterborough Prison Social Impact Bond (UK)


Objective: Reduce reoffending rates among short-sentence prisoners.


Investors: Various private investors and trusts.


Outcome: Investors were rewarded based on the reduction in reconviction rates, with an emphasis on mentoring and support for ex-offenders.


8.1.3: Australia's Newpin Social Benefit Bond


Objective: Improve outcomes for children in out-of-home care.


Investors: Various investors, including banks and philanthropic organizations.


Outcome: Investors received returns based on achieving specific child welfare targets, including family reunification rates.


8.1.4: Educate Girls Development Impact Bond (India)


Objective: Improve girls' enrollment and learning outcomes in government schools in Rajasthan.


Investors: UBS Optimus Foundation, Educate Girls, and various philanthropic organizations.


Outcome: Investors were repaid based on the achievement of education outcomes, including increased enrollment and improved learning levels among girls.


8.2: Potential Indian SIB Initiatives


8.2.1: Clean Energy Access SIB


Objective: Increase clean energy access to underserved communities.


Investors: Impact investment funds, development banks, and renewable energy companies.


Outcome: Investors receive returns based on the expansion of clean energy infrastructure and increased energy access in target regions.


8.2.2: Healthcare SIB


Objective: Improve maternal and child healthcare outcomes in rural areas.


Investors: Healthcare-focused impact investors, foundations, and government health agencies.


Outcome: Investors are repaid based on the achievement of predefined healthcare metrics, including reduced maternal mortality and improved child health indicators.


8.2.3: Skill Development SIB


Objective: Enhance employability and income generation for marginalized youth.


Investors: Vocational training institutions, impact investors, and corporate foundations.


Outcome: Investors receive returns based on the percentage of participants gaining employment or generating sustainable income.


8.3: Impact Measurement and Reporting


8.3.1: Impact Assessment Framework


Metrics: Define a set of standardized impact metrics relevant to the Indian context, covering key areas such as education, healthcare, environment, and poverty alleviation.


Reporting Frequency: Specify reporting frequency and timelines for organizations issuing SIBs to ensure regular and consistent reporting.


Verification Process: Establish a process for independent impact verification to validate the achievement of social and environmental outcomes linked to SIBs.


Transparency: Emphasize transparency in impact reporting, enabling investors and stakeholders to access impact data easily.


Alignment with SDGs: Encourage organizations to align their impact reporting with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to provide a holistic view of their contributions to global sustainability.


8.3.2: Impact Verification


Independent Evaluators: Engage independent evaluators or assessment agencies to assess the progress and outcomes of SIB-funded projects.


Verification Criteria: Define clear verification criteria and standards that organizations must meet to demonstrate the achievement of predefined outcomes.


Regular Auditing: Conduct regular audits of impact data and reports to maintain the integrity of impact verification.


8.4: Evaluation and Learning


8.4.1: Feedback Mechanism


Feedback Loop: Create a feedback loop for SIB-funded projects, allowing organizations to adapt and improve their programs based on performance data.


Knowledge Sharing: Promote knowledge sharing among organizations involved in SIBs to facilitate the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and innovative approaches.


8.5: Public-Private Partnerships


8.5.1: Government Engagement


Government Commitment: Foster collaboration and partnerships between government agencies and private sector organizations in the implementation of SIBs. Governments can provide outcome payments and regulatory support to incentivize private investment in social and environmental programs.


8.6: Investor Protection


8.6.1: Risk Disclosure


Risk Disclosure: Mandate clear and comprehensive disclosure of risks associated with SIB investments to protect investors and ensure informed decision-making.


8.6.2: Dispute Resolution Mechanisms


Dispute Resolution: Establish effective dispute resolution mechanisms to address conflicts or disputes that may arise between stakeholders involved in SIBs.


Section-9 : Global List Of Social Stock Exchanges


1. Impact Investment Exchange (IIX) - Singapore


Listing Criteria: IIX connects impact enterprises with investors through Impact Partners, offering various investment instruments. Their criteria typically include organizations committed to creating positive social and environmental impact alongside financial sustainability.


Top Projects: IIX has supported a wide range of projects, including renewable energy initiatives, women-led enterprises, and projects focused on healthcare, education, and poverty alleviation across Asia.


2. Bolsa Mexicana de Valores (BMV) - Mexico


Listing Criteria: BMV offers the Sustainability and Corporate Governance Index (Sustentable IPC) for companies that meet specific social responsibility criteria. To be listed, companies must demonstrate a strong commitment to sustainability and corporate governance.


Top Projects: Companies listed on the Sustentable IPC index in Mexico are involved in various sustainable and socially responsible initiatives, including environmental conservation and community development.


3. Big Society Capital - United Kingdom


Listing Criteria: Big Society Capital invests in social enterprises, charities, and community organizations in the UK. Listing criteria may include alignment with social impact objectives and financial viability.


Top Projects: Big Society Capital has funded projects in areas such as affordable housing, healthcare access, education, and community development throughout the United Kingdom.


4. JSE Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) Index - South Africa


Listing Criteria: The SRI Index represents a collection of socially responsible companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. To be included, companies must demonstrate a strong commitment to social responsibility.


Top Projects: Companies listed on the SRI Index in South Africa are involved in various social and environmental initiatives, such as job creation, education, and renewable energy.


5. Euronext Growth - France


Listing Criteria: While not exclusively an SSE, Euronext Growth supports listings for SMEs with a strong focus on sustainability and social responsibility. Criteria may include financial viability and alignment with sustainability goals.


Top Projects: SMEs listed on Euronext Growth may include those with impactful initiatives in areas such as clean energy, sustainable agriculture, and ethical consumer goods.


6. Triodos Bank - Netherlands


Listing Criteria: Triodos Bank offers investment opportunities in various impact sectors, including renewable energy, organic food, and fair trade. Listing criteria may include alignment with sustainability goals and financial viability.


Top Projects: Triodos Bank invests in organizations and projects that promote sustainability and social impact, such as renewable energy projects, sustainable agriculture, and microfinance initiatives.


7. Impact Investment Group (IIG) - Australia

Listing Criteria: IIG is an Australian impact fund manager with investments in renewable energy, social infrastructure, and real estate. Criteria may include alignment with impact objectives and financial viability.


Top Projects: IIG's portfolio includes projects in renewable energy generation, sustainable property development, and social infrastructure improvement.


8. SITAWI Finance for Good - Brazil


Listing Criteria: SITAWI promotes social finance and impact investing in Brazil. Listing criteria may include alignment with social and environmental impact goals and financial viability.


Top Projects: SITAWI supports initiatives in areas such as education, healthcare, sustainable agriculture, and poverty alleviation in Brazil.


9. Calvert Impact Capital - United States


Listing Criteria: Calvert Impact Capital offers various financial products for impact investors, including loans and investments in community development. Criteria may include alignment with impact objectives and financial sustainability.


Top Projects: Calvert Impact Capital finances a wide range of social and environmental projects in the U.S. and globally, including affordable housing, sustainable agriculture, and renewable energy initiatives.


10. Luxembourg Green Exchange (LGX) - Luxembourg


Listing Criteria: LGX specializes in green, social, and sustainability bonds. Listing criteria typically involve organizations issuing bonds with a clear focus on environmental and social impact.


Top Projects: Organizations listing on LGX issue bonds to fund projects with positive environmental and social outcomes, such as renewable energy projects, clean transportation initiatives, and social infrastructure development.


Conclusion


The integration of Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) within India's emerging Social Stock Exchange (SSE) represents a transformative opportunity to harness the power of private capital for public good. This convergence aligns with India's sustainable development goals, addressing critical challenges across education, healthcare, environment, and poverty alleviation.


SIBs offer a structured financing mechanism that links investor returns to the achievement of predefined social and environmental outcomes. Their incorporation within SSE enhances the impact investing landscape in India by providing investors with diverse opportunities for impact-aligned investments.


The successful implementation of SIBs in India's SSE requires collaborative efforts among governments, service providers, impact investors, and regulatory authorities. Standardized impact reporting, rigorous outcome measurement, and transparency are key elements of this ecosystem.


As India continues its journey towards sustainable development and social progress, the integration of SIBs within SSE holds the promise of driving meaningful change, mobilizing private capital for public good, and contributing to a brighter and more equitable future for all.






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